FAQ Can you determine the date of preparation of a document containing either handwritten notations or signatures? Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to prepare any handwritten or handprinted material. The type of ink does not preclude this examination. If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports. We cannot, however, through this technique, determine the specific or even approximate date of preparation. Other techniques can determine the approximate date of preparation of handwritten entries. Additionally, it is possible to measure the quantity of several semi- volatile components that are present in ink. As the ink ages these components decrease and thus the approximate age of the writing can be determined. Can the date of preparation be determined for other types of documents such as typewritten, carbon, computer printed or xerographically reproduced?
DATINK pilot study: an effective methodology for ballpoint pen ink dating in questioned documents.
Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Under a Creative Commons license open access Abstract Although degradation of iron gall ink containing paper has been scientifically studied for almost years, we still do not have a good understanding of the kinetics of the process. While many studies focussed on model samples to avoid the inhomogeneity of real historic samples or the need for sampling, this research was conducted on a selection of real documents.
The analytical methods were optimised such that sample consumption was minimised and errors and uncertainties were evaluated. The results show that the rate of degradation, measured as change in the degree of polymerisation of cellulose in paper beneath ink, can be described in Arrhenius terms, and that the apparent activation energy for the process depends on the moisture content in the material.
The variation is consistent with the process of hydrolysis becoming less prominent at lower moisture content values, although the results indicate that hydrolytic degradation predominates during natural ink-induced degradation. In the context of the historic samples used in the study, the presence of ink accelerated the degradation of paper by a constant factor of 1.
Several ink dating methods based on solvents analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were proposed in the last decades. These methods follow the drying of solvents from ballpoint pen inks on paper and seem very promising.
Click for pdf version Erich J. This paper describes an independent assessment of the reliability of techniques currently in use in the United States for determining the relative age of writing inks. Although considerable practice and experience was required to become proficient in the use of these procedures, it was found that all of the methods are useful for estimating the age of inks on questioned documents.
Opinions of ink dating chemists, both government and private, differ on the reliability of the above described ink aging methods. Therefore, before applying any of these methods to actual case work the author conducted an independent evaluation of the reliability of the R-Ratio, Percent Extraction, Dye-Ratio and Accelerated Aging techniques for estimating the age of writing ink on documents. Six experiments were conducted using the following procedures. R-Ratio and Percent Extractions 1.
Samples of the known and questioned ink are removed from the paper using a hollow needle punch with a plunger to push the sample out of the needle. Caution should be taken to not get any combination from such things as other inks, inks from the opposite side of the document, or printed stamps. Place the plugs in a vial. Inject microliters of a weak solvent like n-butanol, into the vial and make sure all the plugs are covered. After the desired aliquots have been taken at the desired times, usually 30 seconds, 90 seconds, 3 minutes and 10 minutes, 10 microliters of Benzyl Alcohol, or another strong solvent is then added and allowed to extract for 5 minutes.
Another 4 microliters aliquot is taken of this solution and spotted on the TCL plate as well. The relative intensities of all 5 spots are calculated using a Densitometer and then using the following formulas:
Talbot was only five months old when his father died and his mother was faced with an estate in ruinous condition. The boy and his mother lived in a succession of family homes until Lady Elisabeth remarried in to Captain later Rear Admiral Charles Feilding It was then that Talbot gained a real father and, soon, two half-sisters, Caroline Augusta Feilding , later Lady Mt. Talbot’s extensive family connections provided him access to elite circles in science and politics.
About the Infinite Ink Pine Pages This page is an overview of you are looking for instructions for setting up and using Pine, the following Infinite Ink pages and sections may be especially useful to you.
Under an Elsevier user license open access Abstract Attenuated total reflectance ATR Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy associated to linear discriminant analysis LDA was employed to perform classification of blue pen ink according to types and brands, in a nondestructive way. To build a representative data set, blue pens of 3 types, namely ballpoint 5 brands , roller ball 2 brands and gel 3 brands were purchased from local dealers.
Ten different pens, representing the best seller of each brand, were purchased, making a total of pens. Three types of paper were employed: LDA models were built using the blue pen ink spectra obtained from paper 1. Three test sets were employed using the blue pen ink spectra obtained from papers 1, 2 and 3, in order to evaluate the influence of the paper on the predictions.
Using SW, the rate achieved was The method developed was able to differentiate successfully all brands of pen used on each type of paper and could be a helpful tool for detection and confirmation of counterfeits in documents of legal importance. Previous article in issue.
Ink Testing and Analysis
When World War I ended at the end of , the rate was lowered to its prewar level of one cent. The postal rate was raised briefly from 1 cent to 2 cents in and in ; the conclusive raise to 2 cents was in Commission Rate Board overestimated revenue needs in and was forced to reduce the postage rate in These were illustrations on government-printed postal cards and on privately printed souvenir cards. The government postal cards included a printed 1-cent stamp; the privately printed souvenir cards required a 2-cent adhesive postage stamp to be affixed.
There are four major approaches (each approach is a group of methods) used for dating inks on documents: 1. Ink Aging Approach. Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents.
I recently had a very unproductive E-mail exchange with Kodak in regards to their printers default behavior to disable my printer as soon a low ink notification shows up. Any chance anyone knows how they monitor the ink level in the ESP series , or even more importantly, how to override it, so I can continue to print until the cartridge is actually empty?
Resetting the cartridge counter [if one has a defective chip or a manually refilled cartridge]: Apparently,it is a circuit that carries the count of pages printed to a counter. The instructions I read were to ‘insert the blade under the line. I had to do it in daylight; you may have better eyes.
Enter Characters from Left: The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating.
Building a Renaissance Lute using original methods – a project report by Andrew Atkinson. Originally a series of lectures given at meetings of the Lute Society, and published in .
One, dating from June , is written in French, and describes the Germans’ secret ink formula, showing they had cracked the enemy’s code. A document written in French reveals they had cracked the Germans’ secret formula for making invisible ink Another describes how to carry invisible ink in your clothes. The best means for developing are iodite of potassium. Instructions include ‘examine through powerful beams of light directed on surface at different angles’ and ‘run a warm iron over the surface’.
One of the documents is an extract from a pamphlet written by a Theodore Kytka, a San Francisco handwriting expert, which was designed to teach postal inspectors how to recognise invisible ink. Painstakingly-detailed documents describe the different methods which could be used to read documents written in invisible ink It lists 50 scenarios in which the ink could be used, including ‘placing writings under postage stamps, wrapping messages in medicine capsules and engraving messages Mix five of drams of copper acetol arsenate and add three ounces acetone.
Add one pint of amyl alcohol fusil-oil.
A younger Sheldon in Sheldon at age 9, in “I’m not crazy, my mother had me tested. Sheldon Lee  Cooper  , B. Originally from East Texas , Sheldon started college at the age of 11, receiving his first Ph. Sheldon was involved in numerous experiments as a wunderkind, such as his plan to provide free electricity for his hometown by building a nuclear reactor – a plan stopped by government pen pushers claiming it’s illegal to store yellowcake uranium in a garden shed.
I recently had a very unproductive E-mail exchange with Kodak in regards to their printers default behavior to disable my printer as soon a low ink notification shows up.
Contact Ink Dating There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents: Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr.
Cantu in the s. Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc. Ink Comparison Approach 3.